In the United States, 3.4 million people suffer from this disease. One-third of the population suffers from epilepsy and uncontrolled seizures because no medicine can cure it.
Anyone can have epilepsy, but this possibility is more common in young children and the elderly. This disease is also more common in men than in women.
Reporting by health epilepsy is a chronic disorder that causes recurrent seizures without a definite cause. This crisis is electricity that suddenly attacks the brain.
There are two types of epileptic seizures: generalized seizures that affect the whole brain and focal or partial seizures that affect only one brain. Focal seizures can be difficult to recognize because they last a few seconds.
Severe attacks will have an effect on uncontrolled muscles and can last for several minutes. For these severe crises, patients will become confused or lose consciousness, and may not remember what happened.
But muscle spasms are not always indicated as epilepsy. There are several other reasons for seizures, such as high fever, head trauma, low blood sugar, and alcoholism.
Causes of epilepsy
- Still from the same source, the cause of epilepsy in 6 out of 10 people can not be determined. Epilepsy has many causes, including:
- Traumatic brain injury.
- Healing in the brain after brain injury (post-traumatic epilepsy).
- Serious illness or very high fever.
- Stroke, which is the leading cause of epilepsy in people over 35 years old.
- Other vascular diseases
- Lack of oxygen to the brain.
- Brain tumor or cyst.
- Dementia or Alzheimer's disease.
- Maternal drug use, prenatal injury, brain malformation or lack of oxygen at birth.
- Infectious diseases such as AIDS and meningitis.
- Genetic or developmental disorders or neurological diseases.
- Genetics or genetics also play a role in many types of epilepsy. Epilepsy can develop at any age. Diagnosis usually occurs in early childhood or after age 60.
Symptoms of epilepsy
The symptoms of epilepsy are convulsions. But these crises have different types, including:
- 1. Focal (partial) seizures, partial seizures do not cause loss of consciousness, the symptoms are as follows:
- Changes in the sense of taste, smell, vision, hearing or touch.
- Tingling and contractions in the limbs.
- Complex partial crises. These complex partial seizures can cause loss of consciousness, the symptoms are empty, insensitive and repetitive movements.
- 2. General seizures, these seizures affect all parts of the brain and have 6 types of seizures, including:
- Mallile crises (empty looks, repetitive movements such as spasms on the lips or repeated bursts).
- Tonic convulsions (stiff muscles).
- Atonic convulsions (loss of muscle control and sudden drop).
- Clonic convulsions (spasms in the muscles of the face, neck and arms).
- Myoclonic convulsions (spasms on arms and legs).
- Tonic-clonic seizures (body stiffness, tremors, loss of bladder or bowel control, tongue bites and loss of consciousness).
How to treat epilepsy
Always on the same page, the first-line treatment of epilepsy is an anti-epileptic drug. These medications help reduce the frequency and severity of seizures, but can not stop seizures that have already occurred and can not cure epilepsy.
There are many anti-epileptic drugs sold. Doctors can also prescribe a single drug or combination of drugs, depending on the type of seizure.
The drugs commonly used against epilepsy are:
- Levetiracetam (Keppra).
- Lamotrigine (Lamictal).
- Topiramate (Topamax).
- Valproic acid (Depakote).
- Carbamazepine (Tegretol).
- Ethosuximide (Zarontin).
- These drugs are usually available as tablets, fluids or injections and are taken once or twice daily.